Writing Exercise Help Women Overcome Gender Stereotypes

Writing exercise seems particularly beneficial stretcher coeds who like to believe that the negative stereotype that men are better at physics, the researchers said.

In fact, awareness of the gender gap can negatively affect the performance of the women in their physics exam. However, a rather simple writing exercise that focuses on core values mereafirmasi individual, it narrowed the gap and balancing the space for women who find themselves in the demographic (gender) is often distereotipekan.

In the view of their research, Akira Miyake from the University of Colorado in Boulder with his colleagues in Colorado and California implies that affirmation exercises similar value might help close the gender gap closer. Their study was published in the November 26 issue of the journal Science, published by AAAS, the nonprofit science.

“Introduction to the course that we are investigating in this study for students / i are planning to cultivate the field of science,” said Miyake. “So, the women in the course might be: well-controlled high school science lessons, interested in science, and highly motivated to do well. Fact that a large reduction in the gender gap for women who are no longer affected by stereotypes is, tells you that some psychological processes affect the performance of the women in the test and how strong the effect is. ”

New experiment follows a previous study by the same researchers on the effects of positive long-term effects of a similar writing exercise for students in grades seven African American race in public schools.

In the new study, Miyake and his colleagues tested 399 male and female students in introductory physics classes. During the first and fourth weeks, the researchers asked a group of students / i is selected at random to write personal values important to them, such as friends and family, for 15 minutes. Student / other i randomly placed into a control group and asked to write their personal values among the least important and explain why they might be important to others.

Exercise affirmation value turns out to be a promising intervention that seems to provide a measurable boost for women (but not men) is good for multiple-choice exams in the class and exam on the mastery of conceptual physics, the researchers said.

Writing exercise helped reduce the difference between male and female academic performance in physics classes for 15 weeks. More women obtain the value of B in the affirmation group than in the control group, and more women are getting C’s in the control group than those in the affirmative. The results of a survey given to the students / i indicates that the most visible academic improvement in women believe that men are generally better in physics. In the control group, women test scores tend to decrease when the rate is increased recognition of the stereotypes. However, a negative relationship between the recognition of stereotypes and test scores are not found in the group affirmation. Miyake said: “These results tell us that writing self affirmation essay exam women improve performance by reducing their anxiety related to negative stereotypes about the point of view of women in science.”

“Imagine getting a B in the class instead of C,” said Miyake. “The difference is big psychologically for women who want to cultivate the field of science, even a career in science. This gives you a huge confidence boost and perhaps motivate you to take more science courses.”

“Although our findings are promising, I would like to remind that the values affirmation intervention is not a silver bullet that magically makes the gender gap disappeared altogether,” concluded Miyake. “The situation is more complicated than that, and there are many factors that influence the gender gap in some disciplines. However, these values affirmation intervention is promising especially when combined with the kind of education reforms that are known to increase the learning of all students / i. Provided we create rich learning opportunities for all students / i, psychological interventions like this can help make a variety of science courses that are challenging and perhaps more frightening is less intimidating and more accessible to the majority student population / i, something that has not happened also prepared or supported in lingukangan-environment. “

Prevent Infections Malaria Infections First Next

A team of researchers has found that the existing malaria prevents subsequent infection by the malaria parasite by limiting the presence of iron in the host liver. This discovery has important implications for treatment and prevention of malaria that affects millions of people worldwide.

The study was developed by a team led by researcher Maria M. Mota at the Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon, Portugal, in collaboration with researchers at the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine and Oxford University, and funded by the Portuguese Fundacao Ciencia e Tecnologia a pre, the European Science Foundation and Medical Research Council, UK.

In this new study, the researchers focused on how the malaria parasite to grow, both in the liver and in red blood cells and analyzed patterns of infection in mice, looking for the special case of “super infection”, in which someone who is already infected with malaria after being bitten by both an infected mosquito. Someone in a high risk area can be bitten by hundreds of mosquitoes infected with malaria per year, which makes the problem very relevant super infection. The study for the first time reveal the vital role of iron in the development of a malaria infection, which has strong implications for iron supplementation to combat anemia in malaria endemic areas.

After a mosquito bite, malaria parasites first of all to the heart, a lot, then go out and attack the red blood cells. Formerly known that parasites in both the liver and in blood need iron to grow. This new study shows that the two mosquito bites on someone who is already carrying blood parasites, does not result in full blast a second infection. Super infection is blocked in the liver by the first infection. This protective effect is caused by blood parasites causing the parasites in the liver to iron out, so they can not grow. Therefore, the results obtained dubious biological concept that infection of different host cells (liver hepatocytes or red blood cells) occur independently from each other, which also had an impact on the field of study that exceeds malaria infection.

Dr. Silvia Portugal, first researcher of the study said: “I am very pleased we were able to find such an interesting interaction occurring between the stages of the malaria parasite in a host of different, and this may contribute to the control of malaria in the future.”

Dr. Maria Mota, who led the study at the Instituto de Medicina Molecular in Lisbon says: “Our findings help explain the differences in infection risk and complexity of infections in young people observed in the malaria endemic areas who had speculative explanation is needed to at this time. Anyway, they doubted the idea that infection in distinct cell types occur independently, which may impact on future research in the field of infectious diseases as a whole. ”

Dr. It Drakesmith working together leads study on the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine adds: “Now that we understand how malaria parasites protect their territory in the body from parasites competitors, we may be able to enhance this natural defense mechanism to combat the risk of infection- malaria infection. At the same time we need to look back on the feasibility of iron supplementation programs in malaria-endemic areas, as it increases the risk of possible infection needs to be weighed with the benefits gained. More data are needed for this problem. ”

Malaria is a devastating disease affecting extensive areas of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, causing several thousand deaths per year in children under five years old. Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites Plasmodium infection, which includes the type Apikompleksa. Experiments to eradicate malaria have so far not been successful. Failure can be attributed to the increase in insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and the anti-malarial drugs in the parasite. There is an urgent need for developing new strategies against malaria.

The findings were published on May 15, 2011 in Nature Medicine.

Overcoming Anxiety Time Trials

The students scored higher after writing their anxieties before the test.

The high school students and college go from scary situations into glory in the tests by writing the exam fear before, according to new research.

As the Heimlich maneuver to cope with the pressure ketercekikan, writing concerns related to the test for 10 minutes before taking a big test seems to pull out his concerns and pave the way for higher achievement, according to psychologists Gerardo Ramirez and Sian Beilock of the University of Chicago, as ScienceNews reported (01/13/11).

Writing out the unspoken fears and anxieties about the failure of the associated permit students to re-evaluate these concerns and set it aside during a test, Ramirez and Beilock suggested in the January 14 issue of the journal Science.

“Writing about anxiety will test or exam can substantially improve the test scores of students and prevent ketercekikan scary,” said Beilock.

Ramirez and Beilock provides the first evidence of people benefit from writing eksperesif instant, says psychologist James Pennebaker of the University of Texas at Austin. Previous studies linking him to write about a personal conflict and trauma for several days at the beginning of the semester tuition to improve physical health and the value end of the semester.

The researchers also found that people with depression who write about personal experiences that push over the past few months to reflect progressively less melancholy of topics.

It is not clear whether the students who experience test anxiety can be repeatedly improve their test scores through expressive writing, noted Beilock.

Pennebaker agreed. “As new interventions, there is a strong possibility that the effectiveness of the exercise meulis diminish over time,” he said.

For two consecutive years of teaching at a Midwestern high school, Ramirez and Beilock suggests teachers were randomly assigned one of two writing exercises to students whose total of 106 people to attend the final exam biology. Each student taking 10 minutes to write their thoughts and feelings about the upcoming exam or a description of the biological topics they thought would not be there in the exam.

In a questionnaire given six weeks before the final exam, 54 students reported constant worry or anxiety about following and may fail in the exam.

Among those students who are anxious, those who write about the feelings associated with exam scores average 6 percent higher at the end of the test than those who wrote about the topic of biology. The authors expressive in an average B + on the final exam, while the authors biology get a B-.

They are worried that writing about their feelings grades as high as those students who reported little or no concern at all about the exam. The students are anxious to get a value of about 6 percent below their peers who are not concerned in the three test mid to final exams, a decline caused by writing about test anxiety.

No one writes anything that exercises the students were a bit anxious about test scores higher.

In a separate lab experiments, Ramirez and Beilock initially gave a math test low pressure and high pressure then to 47 students with comparable math skills. In the low-pressure test, the students were told to do their best. In the high-pressure test, which is designed to increase the anxiety test, the volunteers were told that their test results will determine how much money will be provided by the experimenter.

The participants who took 10 minutes to write their thoughts about the high pressure test before doing so increase their value substantially more than what they earn in the low-pressure test. However, compared with the low-pressure test results, the value down clearly on the high-pressure test for students who write about emotional events in their lives, or who did not write anything.

Babies Feel Faster Than Anticipated

Babies can feel that what other people believe is not always the same as reality.

While your baby is very smart, he probably can not read your mind, she did not even know about it. New research indicates that 7 month old baby is sensitive to the perspectives of others. However, more studies are needed to demonstrate whether the baby really understand that other people have their own beliefs.

The new study, published Dec. 24 in the journal Science, enriching research explores the first time when humans developed the ability to predict intentions and perspectives of others, a cognitive ability termed “theory of mind”. Scientists have long debated whether this is a physical ability or something that occurs when a baby’s brain collects information and experiences.

Previous research indicates that children can not distinguish between what is believed to others with the truth until they turn 4 or 5 years. These developments are explored in the classic experiments in which children see a boah Maxie put chocolate into a kitchen drawer. Maxie kemudia go, and someone came up and move it into a closet chocolate. Maxie then come back and ask for chocolate. The children were then asked if Maxie will go to the drawer, where he put his brown, or cabinet, place the chocolate really is.

Children aged 3 years to say that Maxie would go to the drawer, said Josef Perner cognitive development specialist from the University of Salzburg, the experimenter Maxie in the early 1980s. Although Maxie did not know chocolate is in the cupboard, children 3 years old can not seem to understand that the place is not actually chocolate at the thought Maxie. “Only about 4 or 5 children realized that he did not act according to the real world, but acts according to his own world.” Similarly, as quoted from ScienceNews (12.23.10).

The new study involved a similar experiment, also using the test “false belief” that aims to get whether children understand that other people can have confidence in their minds that do not correspond to reality. Infants aged 7 months to watch a video of a creature like a smurf (animated character) who puts a ball on the table, which rolled into the back of the bulkhead so it is not visible. The creature was gone, and the ball still or moving again. At the time the creature again, humbled sekatnya indicating whether the ball there. Sometimes the ball loakasi consistent with what is seen the creature, but sometimes, as with Maxie and brown, the creature has a mistaken belief about the location of the ball, expect the ball at the spot where the creature was last seen.

Babies look at the screen longer when the alleged creature on the ball it does not match the actual location of the ball, according to the researchers. This indicates that infants younger than 1 year old to understand the beliefs of others, said Ágnes Kovács of Hungary at the Budapest Academy of Sciences, who led the research.

Research does indicate that infants give different attention to the people rather than objects, a view which is important for the development of theory of mind. “A lot of the new study suggests that babies have a more complex understanding of other people’s minds than we think,” says psychologist Alison Gopnik of the University of Calfornia, Berkeley. “They treat people as special from the start.”

However, drawing conclusions about the human mind that can not be met with difficulty speaking, he noted. Using the way how long a baby looks at something is a metric that can clarify but must be combined with behavioral tests, such as a baby also received certain objects, says Gopnik.

Perner Maxie noted that in experiments, although the 3-year-old boy said that Maxie going to the closet, they spend some time looking into the drawer, perhaps because their brains trying to overcome the thoughts that collide.

He and others added that the new study design could have been more powerful. For example, the experiment did not examine how the baby will react when he saw the ball coming and going without the presence of the creature.

Still, the study investigates the important things, says Perner. “The study is still interesting because studies show that very young infants pay attention to the right things.”

Improving the Computational Power of Google Translator Tool

Using the tremendous computing power smoothing of the translation

At a meeting held at Google in 2004, the subject focus on a company’s e-mail received from a fan in South Korea. Sergey Brin, which is one of the two founders of Google company, running the message through an automatic translation service that the company has patented.

The message read Google was a favorite search engine, but the translation says: “Sliced ​​raw fish will put horseshoes. Google green onion thing!”

Mr. Brin said Google should have done better. Six years later, a free translation service Google handles 52 languages, more than any other similar system, and people use it hundreds of millions of times a week to translate Web pages and other text.

“What you see on the Google translation of a work of art” in computer translations that are not limited to a particular subject area, said Alon Lavie, an associate research professor in the Language Technologies Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, told The New York Times.

Google’s efforts to expand more than just a search engine has produced many successes. Digital books have been hung in the court, and the introduction of social networking, Buzz, increasing fears of privacy. Examples show that Google could one move when he tries to challenge business traditions and cultural conventions.

But Google’s quick rise to the level of the upper echelons of the translation business is a reminder of what would happen if Google releases a tremendous computing power on complex problems.

Network of data centers for Web search dibangunya now could be the world’s largest computer combined. Google uses the machine to push the limits of translation technology. For example, about two months ago he said that he was working combine its translation tool with image analysis to translate the writing in the picture.

“Machine translation is one of the best examples that shows Google’s strategic vision,” said Tim O’Reilly is the founder and head of the technology publisher O’Reilly Media. “It’s not something that is taken very seriously by anyone. But Google understands something about data that no one else knows, and he’s willing to make the investments necessary to tackle these complex issues ahead of the market.”

Creating a translation machine has long been seen as one of the most difficult challenges in the field of artificial intelligence. Over the decades, computer scientists tried using a rules-based approach that teaches the computer the linguistic rules of two languages ​​and giving it the necessary dictionaries.

But in the mid-1990s, researchers began favoring a statistical approach. They found that if they tell the computer thousands or millions of paragraphs along with the translation of the human, the computer can learn to make accurate guesses about how to translate new texts.

It turns out that this technique requires very large data and computing power, it is suitable to the circumstances of Google.

“Our infrastructure is in accordance with this,” said Vic Gundotra who is vice president of engineering at Google. “We can do the approaches could not even dream of the other party.”

Automatic translation systems are far from perfect, and even Google will not make human translators out of work in the near future. Experts say it is difficult for a computer to break a sentence into parts and then translate and integrate them back.

But Google services good enough to convey the essence of a news article, and it has become an instant source of translations for millions of people. “If you want a rough translation of fast food, it’s a place to visit. Said Philip Resnik which is a machine translation expert and an associate professor of linguistics at the University of Maryland, College Park.

Like its competitors in the field, most notably Microsoft and IBM, Google has incorporated interpreter engine with transcripts of the opening of the United Nations are translated by humans into six languages, and of the European Parliament which was translated into 23 languages. These basic materials were used to train the system with the most common languages.

But Google has been exploring Web script, as well as data from the book scanning project and other sources, to move beyond those languages. For more obscure languages, he brings a “toolbox” that helps the users in the translation and then add these texts into their databases.

Google Offers could hurt sales of software from companies such as IBM But the automatic translation is unlikely to ever be producing a lot of money, at least not of the standard Google’s advertising business. Still, the hard work I can be advantageous in many ways.

Because Google’s online ads everywhere, whatever makes people easy to use Web profitable company. And the system could lead to new applications. A few weeks ago, the company said he would use voice recognition to create text-captions YouTube videos in English, which could then be translated into 50 other languages.

“This technology can make the language barricade is gone,” said Franz Och who is chief scientist at Google who heads the company’s machine translation team. “It could permit anyone to communicate with others.”

Mr. Och a German researcher who previously worked at the University of Southern California, said he was initially reluctant to join Google, fearing it would treat translation as a side project. Be an founder Larry Page that Google only, call and convince Mr. Och.

“Basically he said that this is something that is very important to Google,” Mr. Och just now. Mr. Och entered in 2004 and immediately took a promise from Mr Page into the trial.

While many translation systems like Google’s use up to have billions of words of text to build a language mapping, Google uses much more: a few hundred billion words in English. “Mapping to get better and continue to improve if more text is processed,” said Mr. Och.

Efforts ultimately benefit. A year later, Google won a competition organized by the government to test a variety of complex translation system.

Google has used a similar approach to the massive computing power, heaps of data and statistics, to solve other complex problems. For example, in 2007, the company began offering 800-GOOG-411 directory assistance services that are free that translates spoken words. This service allows Google to collect the various sounds of millions of people in order to be better in terms of recognizing spoken English.

A year later, Google launched a search system based on sound as well as made many years other companies.

And at the end of last year, Google introduced a service called Goggles that analyzes cell phone photos, matching them with a database of more than a billion online images, including photographs taken different paths to service Street viewnya.

Mr. Och acknowledged that Google’s translation system still needed improvement, but he said the system was rapidly getting better. “Quality improvement curve is still high,” he added.

Nano Tool That Assemble Yourself

The researchers created a nanoscale tool that can assemble themselves and can move and change shape on demand.


By mimicking the principles found in nature, a part of the team at the Wyss Institute of Engineering Sciences, Harvard Medical School and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute create nanoscale devices made of DNA that self-assemble and can be programmed to move and change shape on demand . In contrast to existing nanotechnologies, nano devices that can be programmed is very suitable for medical applications because DNA is biologically compatible and can be degraded.

Created on a scale 1: meter, each device is made of a circular single-stranded DNA molecules that when combined with many additional small section of DNA can self-assemble into three-dimensional structures as defined previously. Double spiral strut joining a larger hard linearly connected by single-stranded DNA dominant. This single-stranded DNA pull-strut strut into three-dimensional shapes, like a tether exciting tent poles to form a tent. The strength and stability of the structure is derived from the distribution of neutral and offset the power voltage and pressure.

The principle known as tensegrity architecture has become the attention of artists and architects for many years, but it is also found in various parts of nature. For example, the human body, bones serve as a strut pressure accompanied by muscle, tendon and joint function as carriers of the voltage that enables us to stand up against gravity. The same principle governs how cells control the shape at the micro scale.

“The new technology that can self-assemble nano itself can lead to medical devices and nano-scale drug distribution systems such as artificial viruses that carry drugs directly to diseased cells,” says co-investigator and Wyss Institute director Don Ingber. A nanoscale device that can be opened by mechanical or chemical signal could ensure that drugs not only arrive at the intended target but are also release