Micro Solar Cells Can Fix Yourself

The researchers demonstrated tiny solar cells which can repair itself that extends the usage time.

These cells use a protein which plants convert sunlight into electrical energy.

These cells self-assemble from a mixture of proteins, carbon tubes and other materials are very small.

The mechanism of self-improvement is reported in Nature Chemistry can lead to solar cells that can last a long time.

The design and development of solar cells is one of the most exciting areas of science, in part because the sun is the most abundant energy source on earth that can be renewed.

Moreover, nature has proven that sunlight could be captured and converted into other forms of energy with high efficiency and the level of self-improvement mechanism that compensates the destructive properties of sunlight.

“Sunlight is very destructive when wearing oxygen,” says Michael Strano, a chemical engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who led the research.

“That’s why we age, and why plastic or paper when exposed to the sun outside the pale.”

Destructive mixture of sun and oxygen indicate that many of the best solar cells in the laboratory that may not survive well when used, according to Professor Strano explanation reported by BBC News.

“There is a race among scientists the world to make the cell with the highest level of efficiency, but very few people have asked what happens to cells when you put it up for a few hours or a few weeks or a few months,” he said.

Now Professor Strano and colleagues used a photosynthetic reaction center which is one of the natural development of the plant, to increase the time of usage of solar cells.

They also use a lipid, a molecule similar pairs walls all living cells, and carbon nano tubes, very small pure carbon known for its electrical properties.

The latter they added surfactant, a soap-like molecules of fat that separates certain molecules and keep it separate.

A surprise to the researchers, this diverse mix, when the surfactant is pumped out, can self-assemble into solar cells, each measuring only a few nanometers.

Lipids in pairs forming plate mounted on nano tube on one side and the reaction centers on the other.

Collected light coming in the reaction center, freeing electrons that passed by lipid-lipid and the nanotube.

In the photoelectrochemical cell, the electrons can be captured and together produce an electric current.

Surfactant added along with some protein to replace damaged by the sun, and the formula is complete.

When a surfactant is issued, it assembles pieces back into pure solar cells.

Professor Strano says that the efficiency of the cells as it has been designed is only a small portion is provided by the best solar cells today.

He said despite huge achievement in efficiency is obtained once the experiment was completed, the idea behind the research is just as important as research in the future.

“Our report is useful to start thinking about the tools that can last a lifetime and borrowing concepts provided by nature. Could we make cells that have unlimited time usage?

Laser Technology Without Pain Disease Diagnosis

Lasers are not causing pain to detect early symptoms of the disease.

Laser beam generating tools that do not cause pain and are easy to carry may soon replace X-rays in the diagnosis of disease by non-invasive (does not enter the body by injection or surgery).

The researchers say that the technology could be available within five years overall.

The method is called Rasman spectroscopy may help find early symptoms of breast cancer, osteoporosis and tooth decomposition.

The scientists believe that these technologies will make the process of diagnosing the disease faster, cheaper and more accurate.

Raman spectroscopy is the measurement of the intensity and wavelength of light scattered molecules.

The method is already used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. For example, Raman lasers are used to measure flame characteristics. By studying how the fuel burns can minimize pollution from burning.

Michael Morris, who is a professor at the University of Michigan USA Raman has been used for several years to study human bones.

During this time he used it on the bodies that are no longer alive, but he says that Raman could prove effective in patients who are still alive.

“You can replace many diagnostic procedures that exist today. Magnitude advantage is that the method is non-invasive, faster than classical procedures and more accurate,” he said, as quoted by the BBC.

When someone is sick, or will soon be sick, a mixture of chemicals in tissues / Kleenex (biological terms associated with cells) is somewhat different from the healthy tissue, the scientists said. Thus, the Raman spectrum changes depending on which network analyzes, according to the explanation of Professor Morris.

Raman provides a molecular fingerprint that is the composition of what is measured, “he explained.

“In times of illness, chemical composition somewhat normal or abnormal highly dependent on the disease.”

Non Invasive

Diagnoses can be done in minutes and without X-rays.

“A patient’s wrist just put his hand on the table then there is an optical fiber that delivers laser light that is connected by means of a kind bracelet made of silicon mounted on a patient’s wrist,” Professor Morris said.

“We turn on the laser and after collecting enough signal in a few minutes, we turn off the laser. Basically, it will take a few seconds to interpret the results.”

In addition to bone diseases, such tools may be effective detects early tooth decay, the researchers said.

Blood sampling was probably not necessary in certain cases. For example, to determine the level of cholesterol, one only needs to steer the laser “to the part that is usually used to take the blood samples into the crook of the arm which is where the blood vessels closest to the skin,” says Morris.

New Applications

Other applications can use as an alternative non-invasive Raman of mammography general is a process that uses low-dose X-rays to detect breast cancer symptoms.

Laser will “see” into the network and the distribution of different spectra emit colors reflecting differences in the properties of the network.

Researchers in the United Kingdom at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot and Gloucestershire Royal Hospital have been using Raman to analyze calcifications in breast tissue that may be early symptoms of breast cancer.

“We can target calcification-calcification and decide whether they are benign or malignant,” said Nicholas Stone, head of the research unit biofotonik at Gloucestershire Royal Hospital told reporters magazine Chemical and Engineering News.

“If the calcification-calcification were malignant or inclined that way, you will come back to do a biopsy. If calcification-calcification are benign, the percentage of cases about 80 to 90%, you will not be coming back to do a biopsy.”

“In the UK alone, it would prevent 80,000 patients to perform additional procedures.”

Early Detection of Lung Cancer

Researchers from Northwestern University and the University of North Shore developed a method to detect early signs of lung cancer by examining cheek cells of humans using technology biofotonik.

“By examining the lining of the cheek with this optical technology, we have the possibility of early detection of patients at high risk of lung cancer as smokers, and identify those who require a more expensive test and deeper than those that do not require additional tests, “said Hemant K. Roy, M.D. who is director of gastroenterology research at NorthShore.

The optical technique is called partial wave spectroscopic (SGP) microscopy and was developed by Vadim Backman, who is a professor of biomedical engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Science Northwestern McCormick. Backman and Roy earlier used SGP to assess the risk of colon cancer and pancreatic cancer with promising results as well.

The discovery of the lung cancer was published on the Internet on October 5 yesterday in the journal Cancer Research. Paper will be printed in the October 15 issue.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Survival rates are high with surgical resection (removal of the tumor), but only if detected at an early stage. Currently no tests are recommended for people to detect lung cancer early. The disease is already at a higher stage when most lung cancer patients show symptoms. Five-year survival rate for lung cancer patients is only 15 percent.

SGP can detect cell features that are up to 20 nanometers that reveals differences in cells that appear normal using standard microscopy techniques. SGP-based test harness “field effect” which is a biological phenomenon in which cells located some distance from the tumor is malignant or pre-malignant undergo molecular and other changes.

“Despite the fact that these cells appear to be normal with standard microscopes describe the micro-scale cell architecture, there are actually profound changes in the nanoscale architecture of the cell,” Backman said. “SGP measures the disorder strength of the nanoscale organization of these cells we have set to be one of the early signs of carcinogenesis and a strong marker for the presence of cancer in the organ.”

“SGP is a paradigm shift in this case we do not need to examine the tumor to determine the presence of cancer,” added Hariharan Subramanian who is a research fellow in the laboratory Backman has an important role in the development of these technologies.

After testing the technology in a small-scale trial, Roy and Backman focused the study on smokers because smoking is a major risk factor related to 90 percent of lung cancer patients. “The basic idea is that smoking not only affects the lungs but the entire airway tract,” Roy said.

The study group included 135 participants including 63 smokers who had lung cancer and 37 smokers who suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 13 smokers were not affected by COPD and a group of 22 nonsmokers. The study was not confounded by demographic factors such as the level of smoking, age or gender. The important test is sensitive to the average cancer at all stages, including early curable cancers.

The researchers wipe the inside of the patient’s mouth and then the cheek cells are placed into a slide, fixed with ethanol and then scanned with SGP to measure the disorder strength of cell nanoscale architecture. Results were markedly elevated (greater than 50 percent) in patients suffering from lung cancer than smokers who did not have cancer.

Further assessment of the performance characteristics of the “disorder strength” (the sebaga biomarkers) showed more than 80 percent accuracy in discriminating cancer patients in the three groups.

“These results are similar to the techniques that other successful cancer screening, such as Pap smear,” Backman said. “Our goal is to develop a technique that could improve the detection of other cancers in order to provide early care like pap smears drastically improved survival rates for cervical cancer.”

SGP requires large-scale validation testing. If the SGP, it proved effective in the early detection of cancer clinical trials, Backman and Roy believe that the SGP has the potential to be used as a pre-screening method to identify patients with high risk who may require more comprehensive testing such as bronchoscopy or CT scan is small.

Using robotic hand for “Thinking”

Koginisi action-centered is a breakthrough concept in the world of robotics where robots learn to “think” in terms of what can dilakukanya action against an object.

Actions speak louder than words, especially special if you are a robot. At least that is the theory put forth by a major European effort to develop a completely new approach in cognitive robotics.

PACO-PLUS project sought to test a groundbreaking theory called “complexes of action-object” (KTO). KTO is the units’ thinking by doing “. Basically, this approach to design software and hardware that allows the robot to think about objects in terms of the actions that can be performed on the object.

For example, a robot could see everything. If an object has a handle, the robot can also hold. If the object has a hole, the robot may be able to match something in the hole or fill it with liquid. If the object has a cover or door, the robot may be able to open it.

Thus, objects have meaning or interpreted by a range of possible actions that can be performed by the robot towards the objects. This opens up a more interesting way for robots to think independently because it helps grow the possibility of evolving behavior of complex behaviors that arise spontaneously as simple rules.

Our universe demonstrates admirable complexity of a handful of universal constants and DNA consists of four bases only, but of all life emerged. Researchers at PACO-PLUS hope to imitate a certain level is the level of complexity is the complexity that arises from the simplicity.

In some ways, their approach imitates the baby’s learning process. When finding a new object, the baby will immediately grasp it, eat it, or smashed it with another object. Because they learn from trial and error as a round pole will enter the round hole will expand the range of action.

Observing other people also add to understanding child and then the child started using a combination of actions to accomplish more complex goals such as holding the door handle and turned it.

PACO-PLUS take advantage of strategies that have been proven to enable robots to teach themselves by learning from observation and experience. As a key part of that strategy, PACO-PLUS held most of his work with Humanoid robots are robots resembling humans.

“Humanoid robots are artificial beings with full abilities and perceptual motor complex that makes them very suitable experimental field for studying cognition and cognitive information processing,” said Tamim Asfour who are leaders in the Humanoid Research Group at the Institute of Technology Institute of anthropometric Karlsruhe Germany and is the co-coordinator of the PACO-PLUS project.

“The work we followed the Rodney Brooks who was the first to explicitly say that cognition is a function of our perception and our ability to interact with our environment. In other words, cognition arises from the form and our existence in the environment.”

Brooks published his most influential in the 1980s, believes that the move and interact with the environment are difficult problems in biological evolution, but as a species to achieve it, it would be very easy to “evolve” high-level symbolic reasoning of abstract thought. Brooks believes that intangible intelligence is a problem that can not be solved.

This reverses the approach taken by the “artificial intelligence”. IB believes if you develop enough intelligence, your mind will be able to feel the engine and solve problems, while cognitive robotics to believe that if you develop useful perception and interaction, intelligence will emerge spontaneously.

Assessment still need more information to determine which one is correct, but the faculty of cognition robotics supported by biology and now handles also PACO-PLUS project.

In advanced stages, there is no candidate robot like in the movie “I Robot”. While Hollywood is still much interpretation, applications and examples developed by PACO-PLUS show that maybe this time we’ve been on the right track.

Tighten Privacy Tali Google Employees

Google tightening privacy leash company employees to ensure they do not disturb anyone when leading search engines on the internet to collect and store information about its users.

Google Images from commons.wikimedia.org

In addition to promoting his old employee Alma Whitten as director of privacy company, Google said on Friday that “he” will require all employees to undergo training totaled 23,000 for privacy. The company is also introducing more checks aimed at ensuring that workers comply with its rules.

Size tighter Google privacy seems to be a response to the violations that occurred recently that has raised many questions about the policies and internal controls of the company.

In the most obvious examples that indicate the company has the capacity both to what was done by the workers, Google admitted in May that one of its engineers had created a program that memvakumkan personal information that may be sensitive, including e-mail and password, from the wireless network unsafe when cars Google exploring various locations around the world. The main vehicles were sent to take photos for Google’s online map service, but these cars also carry equipment to record the location of networks Wi-Fi.

The incident was called as “Wi-Spy” by some critics, is caused by “an engineer’s mistake and also lacked controls to ensure that necessary procedures to protect privacy were followed,” Canada Privacy Commissioner Jennifer Stoddart concluded in a report this week.

Several other countries looked sharp against Google for taking a 600 gigabit data (the equivalent of a six-storey academic libraries) of systems Wi-Fi for more than two years before detecting a problem five months ago in response to inquiries from regulators in Germany .

Google initially said that he only took a few snippets online activities of people, but the Canadian investigation determined that entire e-mails, passwords and websites has been collected and stored. In Canada confirmed discoveries Google said Friday he would remove all Wi-Fi data remaining on its computers as quickly as possible, but had to hold most of it is when the authorities in different countries conduct their own investigations.

So far, Google has been cleaning the Wi-Fi data were taken in Ireland, Austria, Denmark and Hong Kong after obtaining permission from the regulators in those countries. The company still has data from about 20 other countries including the United States, which is investigating the breach.

Although several countries have stated that Google’s Wi-Fi surveillance is illegal activity, the company still maintains that he did not violate any laws even when the management apologized for his misbehavior.

“We are embarrassed by what happened, but we are confident that the changes we process and structure will significantly improve our internal privacy and security practices for the benefit of all our users,” Alan Eustace is Google’s head of engineering wrote in a blog post today on Friday.

Google’s privacy safeguards seems suspect once again after the Gawker blog reported that a Google engineer in the office of Kirkland, Washington used his position to gain spy online accounts of four teenagers. Spurred by the report, last month Google admitted that he had fired the engineer because violated its privacy policy.

Maintaining public trust is very important to Google because its search engine success and business elements of the long-term depends in part on its ability to build a database of the preferences of its users. Among other things, Google believes that such information is to help provide better search results than its rivals and sell more ads that generate virtually all the company’s revenue.

Google, based in Mountain View, California, and even hopes for a greater part of the online life of people by introducing more social networking features on its website so that he can better compete with Facebook in terms of connecting friends and family members online that is more profitable land. When Google introduced a social networking option in the free e-mail service in February, many users protested because the feature exposed their contact lists without prior approval.

Utilizing Brain Power

By using technologies that harness the brain power, a patient who suffered paralysis one day be able to “think about” his legs to move.

Researchers at the University of California and Computational Neuroscience has developed a technology that for the first time allow doctors and scientists to isolate and measure the non-invasive electrical activity of the brain in people who are moving.

This technology is a key component of a type of brain computer interface that would allow a robotic exoskeleton controlled by a patient’s mind to move the patient’s limb, said Daniel Ferris who is a professor in the School of Kinesiology University of Michigan and lead author of a paper describing the research.

“Of course it will not happen immediately but one step towards a situation where it is possible is the ability to record brain waves while somebody is moving,” said Joe Gwin who is first author of the paper and a graduate student researcher in the School doctoral level Part of Kinesiology and Engineering Mechanics. Similarly, as quoted from Physorg on Tuesday (11.02.10).

With this technology, the scientists can show the parts of the brain are activated and precisely when the parts are activated when the subjects move in a natural environment. For example, when we walk, the signals coming from certain parts of the brain that serves as a message is sent from the brain to the muscles. If scientists know where the brain impulses occur, they can use the location information to develop a variety of applications. Previously, scientists could only measure the electrical activity of the brain in patients who did not move.

Ferris likens isolating the electrical activity of the brain is like putting a microphone in the middle of a symphony to discern only certain instruments in certain areas, for example in the first chair oboe, or violin. Ideally in an orchestra, there are many sources of noise in the brain that produce excessive electrical activity, or noise. Even the electrode itself produces noise or noise when it moves in relation to the source.

The researchers identified brain activity will be measured by how many sensors attach to the subject is walking or running on a treadmill. Then they used magnetic resonance imaging to determine the head of the electrical activity of the brain where it originates. In this way, scientists can localize brain activity sources who want to know and ignore another activity if it does not originate in the brain.

Ferris also has a position in biomedical engineering said there were a bunch of reasons scientists can perform this type of measurement now when it is not possible a few years ago. Colleagues at the Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience finding computational tools to perform non-invasive measurements in people, and without the tool of measurement to be something impossible to do. Both groups of researchers then sought ahead and try those measurements on subjects who are walking or running.

Anyway, the electrode is more sensitive and has better signal to noise ratio, he said.

The military is also interested in the type of technology that can be used to optimize the performance of the army in a way to monitor the brain activity of the soldiers in the field to know when soldiers are in peak performance. The technology could also help the military understand how information can be provided and how best handled by the soldiers.

In fact, any industry or organization interested in understanding how the brain and body interact, can benefit by knowing how the brain functions during the specified activity.

“We can imagine the brains of patients with different types of neurological disorders, and we might be able to target rehabilitation to a group of patients who show symptoms of the same,” said Gwin. “If we can imagine the brain is currently undergoing some rehabilitation, we can design treatments are better.”

Light Can Generate Power Lift

Light function to generate the same power that makes aircraft flying, as shown by a new study.

With proper design, uniform flow of light encouraging the objects are very small such as an airplane wing aircraft into the air to raise the body.

Researchers have long known that hitting an object with light can push the object. That’s the thinking behind solar screens, which utilizes radiation for propulsion in space. “The ability of light to push something already known,” said co-researcher Grover Swartzlander of the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York, told Science News (05/12/10).

New tricks of light more interesting than a regular boost: It creates a more complicated force called lift, evident when a flow in one direction to move an object vertically. Foil air or airfoil develops lift, when turning the propeller engine and move the plane forward, its wings are tilted causing the plane ride.

Foil light is not meant to keep an airplane in the air during a flight from one airport to another airport. But the unity of the tools are so small it may be used to power micro machines, transports the particles are very small or even allow steering methods on solar screens.

Optical lift force is “a very neat idea,” says physicist Miles Padgett of the University of Glasgow in Scotland, but terlau early to say how these effects may be utilized. “It may be useful, maybe not. Time will tell.”

Light can have an unexpected lift force was started from a very simple question, Swartzlander said, “If we have something shaped wing and we shine with the light, what happened?” Modeling experiments showed the researchers that an asymmetrical deflection of light will create a very stable lift force. “So we thought it best to do an experiment,” said Swartzlander

The researchers made very small bars shaped like an airplane wing, on the one side and flat on the other side of the winding. When the foil-micron sized air foil is immersed into the water and hit with 130 milliwatts of light from the bottom of the container, foil-foil begins to move upward, as expected. But the bars are also starting to move sideways, perpendicular to the direction of the incoming light. Symmetrical balls are very small do not show the effect of the lift, as the team found.

Different optical lift force of lift aerodynamics with an air foil. An airplane flies because air flowing more slowly under his wings using more pressure than the air flowing faster over the top. But in light foil, lift is created inside these objects when the beam through it. Terebut transparent air foil shape causes the light is refracted differently depending on where the light was passed, which causes the bending beam within their momentum that generates lift.

The corners of the lift foil-foil light is about 60 degrees, according to the findings of the team. “Most aerodynamic bodies airing on the corners of a very gradual, but it does have the ability to lift angles were superb and very strong,” Swartzlander said. “You can imagine what would happen if the plane you are on the air at 60 degrees – your stomach will be on foot.”

When the bars were lifted, it should not fall down or lose its lift, as predicted. “Actually, things could stabilize themselves,” said Padgett.

Swartzlander said that he hopes could eventually test the foil-foil light in the air, too, and try a variety of shapes and materials with different refractive properties. In the study the penelit uses infrared light to generate lift, but other types of light can, Swartzlander said. “The beautiful thing about this is that it will work as long as you have the light.”

The study was published in Nature Photonics on December 5.

Hopefully this can be further investigated and developed for the good.

New Intel Core Chip Secure Movie Streaming

The chip feature, called Insider, includes overall protection layer and management feature to unlock high quality movies from online streaming services, said Karen Regis, Consumer Client Marketing Manager at Intel.

Insider is a part of the quality of the pictures or graphics are offered in a processor Intel corenya to come, which will be officially launched on January 5, faster than Electronics Show in Las Vegas.

With the Insider, the user will gain access to more high quality streaming 1080p content, in which images are displayed with a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels, which can also be found on the Blu-ray disc.

Movie studios are also worried about piracy, which discouraged them to create premium content for 1080p streaming, Regis said. Insider provides a security blanket that could encourage more movie studios to provide high-quality films, he said.

Intel has been working with Warner Bros. Digital Distribution, which will provide 300 high-quality films from WB Shopnya or Best Buy’s CinemaNow service. These movies can only be played on a system with the upcoming Core processors, Regis said.

Those features will be disbursed offer other Intel chips, says Regis. Intel is also working with many film studios and announcements will be delivered next month.

Insider addition, the company is also developing a lot of image technology into chips corenya to accelerate the creation and video imaging. Intel for the first time to build an image processor and CPU into a single chip, which will improve the performance of applications that take pictures and less power. Core chips are based on a new microarchitecture codenamed Sandy Bridge.

Intel is adding specialized hardware accelerators to quickly lock and unlock the video. Feature, called Quick Sync, allows users to transfer high-quality video in a format that is available for smartphones in just seconds. Accelerator hardware is faster than software, which takes many minutes to transfer video.

Intel is also looking to upgrade the Wi-Di technology, which allows wireless users to send images and video from a PC to TV HD (high-definition). The users can now enjoy streaming 1080p content, which is better than the previous 720p. The user will also be able to watch movies that are protected from Intel Insider feature, Regis said.

But the Core processors will not support DirectX 11, which makes the image more realistic on a PC with Microsoft Windows 7 Operating System. Intel step behind Advanced Micro Devices, whose upcoming Fusion chips including image processor that supports DirectX 11.

“We have tested the applications, we do not see a lot of applications that use features in DirectX 11 today. We will incorporate these capabilities into the processor before the image is used by many people, said Regis.

First Intel will market the chip-chip quad-core Core in January, which was then followed by the chip-chip dual-core in February.

Your phone Tells About You

In the world of forensic hp, the insiders have a name for all the personal information that is consciously or unconsciously stored on your mobile phone. They call it “digital fingerprint”.

With the right equipment and direct access to your phone, anyone can tap into the personal details of your life: sms, photos, tweet, facebook, make a pact to you, place your favorite sport, or even what you ate last night.

“You can know everything about a person by cell phone,” said Amber Schroader, owner of Paraben of Pleasant Grove, Utah, which makes forensic software for investigators and the general public. “You can see their YouTube videos, the websites they explore, their pictures. Addicted people going mobile, so this is the latest and most valuable information available about someone.”

While wireless companies and others have long been able to track the location of hp from a distance, it remains unclear which information can be accessed remotely. However, forensic investigators have long known that biographical data storage can be collected when they have direct access to handheld devices. Even before the discovery of the location tracking file that is shown by the researchers this week have been found on the iPhone, investigators had been collecting data from the Apple smartphone.

“We analyzed the iPhone since its launch,” said Christopher Vance, a digital forensics specialist at Marshall University’s Forensics Science Center, which works with law enforcement agencies in the country, both private and West Virginia.

Vance and his lab to help retrieve data from the iPhone including call records, map search results from Google Maps, charts stored in the browser cache, even a record of what has been typed into the iPhone virtual keyboard.

“There are a lot of important information on the iPhone,” he said.

Not everyone was pleased at how easy it makes hp reveal his secret. Apple has continuously ignored requests for comment will archive the tracking, even when members of Congress began to ask the question why Apple tracking phone users and what he did to that information. Anyway privacy advocates warn that retrieve data from hp someone without permission is one step further down the road that has been problematic.

“This is not a cell phone – it’s a phone tapping,” said John M. Simpson, director of Consumer Watchdog’s Privacy Project. “The consumer should have the right to control whether their data is collected and how it is used.

“People do not realize about the gold mine of data about their life is in their hp,” he added. “There should be a learning process so that people will begin to understand.”

Privacy advocates say that the unveiling of the iPhone tracking file underscores the need for law and new legislation to determine the type and amount of information that can dikumupulkan moving equipment. In addition to the iPhone tracking file, opened that Apple’s iPhone and Google’s Android phones regularly send the location data to the two companies.

“I see a slippery slope,” said Sharon Goott Nissim, consumer privacy representatives in the Electronic Privacy Information Center, a consumer advocacy group. “When the data collection is carried out, even harder to stop law enforcement officials to gain access to it. Way to stop this is to stop the collection of the first.”

From experience over the years, investigators now have a better idea than the owner of the phone about what data they can legally get out of telephone consumers. Archive iPhone location tracking “has flown under the radar for a while,” said Sean Morrissey, CEO of Katana Forensics. “For the forensic investigator, it is a good thing. You do not want to tell the bad guys that you can get the information from the phone.

“We know most of the data will be contained in mobile equipment,” he said.

Forensic investigators have long been able to take a list of connections, recording calls and text messages from mobile phones. However, smartphones like the iPhone has significantly increased the amount of data. Part is related to consumers’ growing use of such equipment and more and more applications available for the equipment.

Schroader, whose firm offers a forensic data retrieval tool valued at $ 199 were called iRecovery, said that while investigators have been able to explore the innards of the phone over the years, capacity growth of smartphones mean a big change in the amount of personal data now readily available.

“We have made these tools that support iPhone, Windows Mobile and Android for years, but penyimpanannyalah that changed everything,” he said. “Hp jadul you have a few MB of storage. Now we are at the GB, and eventually will be in terabytes. Rather if we work together with law enforcement, which translates into more evidence, which makes us all very happy.”

System of Government

Understanding / definition of system of government – meaning a whole system which consists of several parts that have a functional relationship. Government in the broad sense is the government / state institutions are doing everything good government as the executive, legislative and judicial. Government system and the system has a goal to maintain a stable country. But in some countries due to frequent separatist actions that are considered burdensome system of government of the people or harm people. The system of government has a strong foundation which can not be changed and become static. If a government has a system of government that is static, absolute, then it will go on forever until the insistence of the minority to protest it.

Broadly means the system of government that maintaining the stability of society, keeping the behavior of the majority or minority, keeping the foundation of government, maintaining political power, defense, economic security so that a continuous system of governance and democracy, which should contribute to the public can participate in the development of the system of government them. Until now only a few countries can practice the government system as a whole.

Grouping Government System

Presidential system of government. It is a system of government in which the head of government held by the president and the government is not accountable to parliament (legislative). Minister responsible to the president because the president serves as head of state and head of government. Example Country: USA, Pakistan, Argentina, the Philippines, Indonesia

Parliamentary system of government. Parliamentary system is a system of government in which the parliament has an important role in government. In this case the parliament has the authority to appoint the prime minister and parliament were able to bring down the government, by way of issuing such a no-confidence motion. Unlike a presidential system, in which the parliamentary system can have a president and a prime minister, in charge of the running of the government. In presidential the president authorized the running of the government, but the parliamentary system, the president is only a symbolic head of state only.

Parliamentary system is distinguished by the executive branch of the government depends on support directly or indirectly the legislative branch, or the parliament, often expressed through a veto conviction. Therefore, there is no clear separation of powers between the executive branch and the legislative branch, to criticism from some who felt a lack of checks and balances found in a presidential republic.

Praised the parliamentary system, compared with a presidential system, because kefleksibilitasannya and responses to the public. The drawback is that he often leads to a less stable government, as in the Weimar Republic of Germany and the French Fourth Republic. Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and head of state, head of government is the prime minister, and the head of state appointed with little or ceremonial powers. However, some parliamentary systems also have a president elected with a lot of power as the head of state, providing a balance in this system.